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Glossary of Internet Terms

If you are a newcomer to the Internet, you will be confronted with unfamiliar terms: browser, bookmark, e-mail, homepage, search engine, and many others. To make your first steps easier, this glossary explains some of the more important terminology you may find in the Internet, intranet, mail and news.

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Frames

Frames are useful for designing the layout ofHTML pages. OpenOffice.org uses floating frames into which you can place objects such as graphics, movie files and sound. The context menu of a frame shows the options for restoring or editing frame contents. Some of these commands are also listed in Edit - Object when the frame is selected.

FTP

FTP stands for File Transfer Protocol and is the standard transfer protocol for files in the Internet. An FTP server is a program on a computer connected to the Internet which stores files to be transmitted with the aid of FTP. While FTP is responsible for transmitting and downloading Internet files, HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) provides the connection setup and data transfer between WWW servers and clients.

HTML

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is a document code language, which is used as the file format for WWW documents. It is derived from SGML and integrates text, graphics, videos and sound.

If you want to type HTML commands directly, for example when doing exercises from one of the many available HTML books, remember that HTML pages are pure text files. Save your document under the document type Text and give it the file name extension .HTM. Be sure there are no umlauts or other special characters of the extended character set. If you want to re-open this file in OpenOffice.org and edit the HTML code, you must load it with the file type Text and not with the file type Web pages.

There are several references on the Internet providing an introduction to the HTML language.

HTTP

The Hypertext Transfer Protocol is a record of transmission of WWW documents between WWW servers (hosts) and browsers (clients).

Hyperlink

Hyperlinks are cross-references, highlighted in text in various colors and activated by mouse-click. With the aid of hyperlinks, readers can jump to specific information within a document as well as to related information in other documents.

In OpenOffice.org you can assign hyperlinks to text as well as to graphics and text frames (see the Hyperlink Dialog icon on the Standard bar).

ImageMap

An ImageMap is a reference-sensitive graphic or text frame. You can click on defined areas of the graphic or text frame to go to a target (URL), which is linked with the area. The reference areas, along with the linked URLs and corresponding text displayed when resting the mouse pointer on these areas, are defined in the ImageMap Editor.

There are two different types of ImageMaps. A Client Side ImageMap is evaluated on the client computer, which loaded the graphic from the Internet, while a Server Side ImageMap is evaluated on the server computer which provides the HTML page on the Internet. In server evaluation, clicking an ImageMap sends the relative coordinates of the cursor within the image to the server, and a dedicated program on the server responds. In the client evaluation, clicking a defined hotspot of the ImageMap activates the URL, as if it were a normal text link. The URL appears below the mouse pointer when passing across the ImageMap.

As ImageMaps can be used in different ways, they can be stored in different formats.

ImageMap Formats

ImageMaps are basically divided between those that are analyzed on the server (i. e. your Internet provider) and those analyzed on the web browser of the reader's computer.

Server Side ImageMaps

Server Side ImageMaps appear for the reader as a picture or frame on the page. Click on the ImageMap with the mouse, and the coordinates of the relative position are sent to the server. Aided by an extra program, the server then determines the next step to take. There are several incompatible methods to define this process, the two most common being:

  • W3C (CERN) HTTP Server (Format type: MAP - CERN)

  • NCSA HTTP Server (Format type: MAP - NCSA)

OpenOffice.org creates ImageMaps for both methods. Select the format from the Save as type list in the Save As dialog in the ImageMap Editor. Separate Map Files are created which you must upload to the server. You will need to ask your provider or network administrator which type of ImageMaps are supported by the server and how to access the evaluation program.

Client Side ImageMap

Modern Client Side ImageMaps do not present as much difficulty on the server side. The area of the picture or frame in which the reader can click on is indicated by the appearance of the linked URL when the mouse passes over the area. The ImageMap is stored in a layer below the picture and contains information about the referenced regions. The only disadvantage of Client Side ImageMaps is that older Web browsers cannot read them; a disadvantage that will, however, resolve itself in time.

When saving the ImageMap, select the file type SIP - StarView ImageMap. This saves the ImageMap directly in a format which can be applied to every active picture or frame in your document. However, if you just want to use the ImageMap on the current picture or text frame, you do not have to save it in any special format. After defining the regions, simply click Apply. Nothing more is necessary. Client Side ImageMaps saved in HTML format are inserted directly into the page in HTML code.

Java

The Java programming language is a platform independent programming language developed by Sun Microsystems, Inc. (http://www.sun.com) that is especially suited for use in the Internet. Web pages and applications programmed with Java class files can be used on all modern operating systems. Programs using Java programming language are usually developed in a Java development environment and then compiled to a "byte code". A .class file is created, which can then be inserted as a "Java Applet" into HTML pages. Several .class files can be combined to a single .jar or .zip file. A Web browser that supports the Java class files can compile the Java programming language code immediately after receipt without the user having to unpack the archive.

The basic concept of the Java technology consists of sending a more advanced level of instruction (for example, "draw a line") to the Web browser which then knows how to execute the instruction on the client computer. Thus a program written in the Java programming language can run on any computer which has an interpreter or compiler for the Java programming language, independent of processor type and operating system.

Do not confuse "JavaScript" and "Java Applets". JavaScript is a simple, limited script language for Web browsers used, for example, to display animated text. JavaScript describes objects in a language that looks a bit like the Java programming language and lets users optically enhance their HTML pages. "Java Applets", on the other hand, are programs written in the Java programming language and compiled into byte code, as described in the preceding paragraphs.

Plug-In

Extensions providing additional functionality in Web browsers are referred to as Plug-Ins.

A Plug-In is a term used in various contexts:

Plug-Ins in OpenOffice.org

You will notice in OpenOffice.org that the Formatting Bar changes after certain operations. For example, if you insert a diagram into your text document,you see icons for editing the diagram, in fact the same ones you see in diagram documents. In this sense, we refer to the diagram document as a plug-in within the text document.

Using Plug-Ins to extend your programs

Plug-ins, generally speaking, are software additions to particular applications which provide enhanced functionality. Often import and export filters for various file formats are stored as plug-ins in a plug-in directory.

Netscape web browser extensions produced by Netscape Communication Corporation are also called plug-ins. These are external programs mainly taken from the multimedia field and which communicate with the browser through standardized interfaces. These plug-ins can be linked to OpenOffice.org documents.

Any Netscape plug-ins (32 bit) installed on your system are automatically recognized by OpenOffice.org. Otherwise, copy the plug-in files to [netinstall_officepath]/share/plugin.

Proxy

A proxy is a computer in the network acting as a kind of clipboard for data transfer. Whenever you access the Internet from a company network and request a Web page that has already been read by a colleague, the proxy will be able to display the page much quicker, as long as it's still in the memory. All that has to be checked in this case is that the page stored in the proxy is the latest version. If this is the case, the page won't have to be downloaded from the much slower Internet but can be loaded directly from the proxy.

SGML

SGML stands for "Standard Generalized Markup Language". SGML is based on the idea that documents have structural and other semantic elements that can be described without reference to how such elements should be displayed. The actual display of such a document may vary, depending on the output medium and style preferences. In structured texts, SGML not only defines structures (in the DTD = Document Type Definition) but also ensures they are consistently used.

HTML is a specialized application of SGML. This means that most Web browsers support only a limited range of SGML standards and that almost all SGML-enabled systems can produce attractive HTML pages.

Search Engines

A search engine is a service in the Internet based on a software program used to explore a vast amount of information using key words.

Tags

HTML pages contain certain structural and formatting instructions called tags. Tags are code words enclosed by brackets in the document description language HTML. Many tags contain text or hyperlink references between the opening and closing brackets. For example, titles are marked by the tags <h1> at the beginning and </h1> at the end of the title. Some tags only appear on their own such as <br> for a line break or <img ...> to link a graphic.

URL

The Uniform Resource Locator (URL) displays the address of a document or a server in the Internet. The general structure of a URL varies according to type and is generally in the form Service://Hostname:Port/Path/Page#Mark although not all elements are always required. An URL can be a FTP address, a WWW (HTTP) address, a file address or an e-mail address.

Index

Internet glossary

common terms,Internet glossary

glossaries,Internet terms

terminology,Internet glossary

HTML, definition

hyperlinks, definition

ImageMap, definition

Server Side ImageMap

Client Side ImageMap

Java, definition

plug-ins, definition

SGML, definition

search engines, definition

tags, definition

URL, definition

This help text for MS Windows , published from the OpenOffice.org Help files Release 2.1 under the Public Documentation License 1.0.